Crystallo-co-Agglomeration Technique for Improving Physicochemical Properties, Compressibility and Solubility Characteristics of Metronidazole


The objective of this study is to develop crystallo-co-agglomeratesof metronidazole having improved physicochemical, compressibility and solubility properties. The process of agglomeration employed the use of dichloromethane (good solvent), ethanol (bridging liquid) and distilled water (poor solvent). Micromeritic properties of the metronidazole co-agglomerates were studied in terms of bulk density, tapped density, Carr's index, Hausner’sratio, and angle of repose. Co-agglomerates were also subjected to compaction studies using the Heckel and Kawakita compaction models. Characterisation of the agglomerates was studied using Scanning electronic microscopy, Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The co-agglomerates were further evaluated for drug release profile. The micrometric properties and dissolution characteristics of metronidazole co-agglomerates were significantly improved when compared to pure metronidazole. The angle of repose for metronidazole co-agglomerates was found to be 29.77°±1.09, Carr’s index was13.60±0.35, and Hausner’s ratio was 1.15±0.06, indicating good flow ability. The drug released over a period of 30 min was 102.61%, this shows better drug release than the pure drug, this could be due to the solubilization of the drug in presence of hydrophilic polymers. It can be concluded that metronidazole co-agglomerates were successfully prepared using the crystallo-co-agglomeration technique with improved micrometric properties, excellent compressibility, and improved solubility characteristics.


Metronidazole, Crystallo co-agglomeration, micromeritic properties, compressibility; solubility, Metronidazole; Crystallo co-agglomeration; micromeritic properties; compressibility; solubility

How to Cite

Abdullahi, A. K., Olowosulu, A. K. & Allagh, T. S., (2023) “Crystallo-co-Agglomeration Technique for Improving Physicochemical Properties, Compressibility and Solubility Characteristics of Metronidazole”, British Journal of Pharmacy 8(1). doi:







Abba Khalid Abdullahi (Ahmadu Bello University Zaria)
Adeniji Kehinde Olowosulu (Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria)
Teryila S. Allagh (Ahmadu Bello University Zaria)





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